Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
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Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
Yes it is -- but folk art is not athene, andits athene whom we want formal culture with its infinity ofaspects, its luxuriance, its large comprehension. Because it can be turned out mechanically, kitsch has becomean integral part of our productive system in a way in which trueculture could never be, except accidentally. There has beenan agreement then, and this agreement rests, i believe, on a fairlyconstant distinction made between those values only to be foundin art and the values which can be found elsewhere.
That avant-garde culture is the imitation of imitating -- thefact itself -- calls for neither approval nor disapproval. It draws its life blood, so to speak, from this reservoirof accumulated experience. Yet there does seem to have been more or less ofa general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the agesas to what is good art and what bad.
In seeking to gobeyond alexandrianism, a part of western bourgeois society hasproduced something unheard of heretofore -- avant-garde culture. Returning to our russian peasant for the moment, let us supposethat after he has chosen repin in preference to picasso, the stateseducational apparatus comes along and tells him that he is wrong,that he should have chosen picasso -- and shows him why. That mussolini was late in coming to thisonly illustrates again the relative hesitance with which italianfascism has drawn the necessary implications of its role.
As long as there was generalagreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, theartist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventivein his matter and could devote all his energy to formalproblems. Caesar could prove direct descendancy for the gods, therefore he shouldalso be considered a god. Kitschs enormous profits are a source of temptation to theavant-garde itself, and its members have not always resisted thistemptation.
Hitler is a bitterenemy of the avant-garde, both on doctrinal and personal grounds,yet this did not prevent goebbels in 1932-1933 from strenuouslycourting avant-garde artists and writers. They arenot immediately or externally present in picassos painting, butmust be projected into it by the spectator sensitive enough toreact sufficiently to plastic qualities. Prior to this the only market for formal culture, as distinguishedfrom folk culture, had been among those who, in addition to beingable to read and write, could command the leisure and comfortthat always goes hand in hand with cultivation of some sort.
The same point can be made with respect to kitsch literatureit provides vicarious experience for the insensitive with fargreater immediacy than serious fiction can hope to do. Hence it developed that thetrue and most important function of the avant-garde was not toexperiment, but to find a path along which it wouldbe possible to keep culture moving in the midst of ideologicalconfusion and violence. Every man, from the tammany aldermanto the austrian house-painter, finds that he is entitled to hisopinion. Let us see, for example, what happens when an ignorant russianpeasant such as macdonald mentions stands with hypothetical freedomof choice before two paintings, one by picasso, the other by repin. Quiz who are you? Ancient romanwomen a look at their lives - womens rights, rome, citizenship more info on roman architecture below in the sections onengineering and art.
Barbarian - Wikipedia
The Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος (barbaros), "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης (politēs), "citizen" (from πόλις – polis, "city-state").
Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
Greenberg: Avant-Gardde and Kitsch
1. The example of music, which has long been an abstract art, and which avant-garde poetry has tried so much to emulate, is interesting. Music, Aristotle said ...
Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
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However, asidefrom the fact that in a sense aristotle may still be right, itmust be explained that ancient greek music was closely associatedwith poetry, and depended upon its character as an accessory toverse to make its imitative meaning clear. A poem by eliot and a poem by eddieguest -- what perspective of culture is large enough to enableus to situate them in an enlightening relation to each other?does the fact that a disparity such as this within the frame ofa single cultural tradition, which is and has been taken for granted-- does this fact indicate that the disparity is a part of thenatural order of things? Or is it something entirely new, andparticular to our age? The answer involves more than an investigation in aesthetics. And so he turns outto be imitating, not god -- and here i use imitatein its aristotelian sense -- but the disciplines and processesof art and literature themselves. Yet it is true that once the avant-garde had succeeded in detachingitself from society, it proceeded to turn around and repudiaterevolutionary as well as bourgeois politics. Kitsch has not been confined to the cities in which it wasborn, but has flowed out over the countryside, wiping out folkculture.
Although the avant-garde was an accepted fact in the 30s. Capitalism in decline finds that whatever of quality it isstill capable of producing becomes almost invariably a threatto its own existence. Kitsch, byvirtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry,has erased this distinction in practice. Superior culture is one of the mostartificial of all human creations, and the peasant finds no naturalurgency within himself that will drive him toward picasso in spiteof all difficulties. Here revolvers and torches begin to be mentionedin the same breath as culture.
The neatness of this antithesisis more than contrived it corresponds to and defines the tremendousinterval that separates from each other two such simultaneouscultural phenomena as the avant-garde and kitsch. Greenberg was the first to define its social and historical context and cultural import. This is not to say, however, that it is tothe the avant-gardes specialization of itself, the fact that itsbest artists are artists artists, its best poets, poets poets,has estranged a great many of those who were capable formerlyof enjoying and appreciating ambitious art and literature, butwho are now unwilling or unable to acquire an initiation intotheir craft secrets. However, if it were easier to definepoetry, modern poetry would be much more pure andabstract. The revolution wasleft inside society, a part of that welter of ideological strugglewhich art and poetry find so unpropitious as soon as it beginsto involve those precious axiomatic beliefs upon whichculture thus far has had to rest. Caesar could prove direct descendancy for the gods, therefore he shouldalso be considered a god. Nor, without the moralaid of revolutionary political attitudes would they have had thecourage to assert themselves as aggressively as they did againstthe prevailing standards of society. The state is helpless in this matter and remainsso as long as the problems of production have not been solvedin a socialist sense. It is for this reason that the avant-gardeis outlawed, and not so much because a superior culture is inherentlya more critical culture. It has been in search of the absolute that the avant-gardehas arrived at abstract or nonobjectiveart -- and poetry, too.100 Best Traditional Compare and Contrast Essay Topics for Students
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Yet it is true that once the avant-garde had succeeded in detachingitself from society, it proceeded to turn around and repudiaterevolutionary as well as bourgeois politics. Should the official culturebe one superior to the general mass-level, there would be a dangerof isolation. The attention of poets like rimbaud, mallarmé,valéry, éluard, pound, hart crane, stevens, evenrilke and yeats, appears to be centered on the effort to createpoetry and on the moments themselves of poetic conversion,rather than on experience to be converted into poetry. Kitsch keeps a dictator in closer contactwith the soul of the people. Nevertheless, without the circulationof revolutionary ideas in the air about them, they would neverhave been able to isolate their concept of the bourgeoisin order to define what they were not Buy now Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
If the avant-garde imitates the processes of art, kitsch, wenow see, imitates its effects. We will even supposethat he faintly surmises some of the great art values the cultivatedfind in picasso. From the point of view of this formulation, surrealismin plastic art is a reactionary tendency which is attempting torestore outside subject matter. Where state educational systems takethe trouble to mention art, we are told to respect the old masters,not kitsch and yet we go and hang maxfield parrish or his equivalenton our walls, instead of rembrandt and michelangelo. Formal culturehas always belonged to the first, while the last have had to contentthemselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay Buy now
And this, precisely, is whatjustifies the avant-gardes methods and makes them necessary. Forthis he blames the political regime -- not only for the fact thatkitsch is the official culture, but also that it is actually thedominant, most popular culture, and he quotes the following fromkurt londons. He turns next to repins picture and sees a battlescene. The peasant is also pleasedby the wealth of self-evident meanings which he finds in the pictureit tells a story. All values are human values, relative values, in art as wellas elsewhere.
Westthat thing to which the germans give the wonderful name of popular, commercial art and literature with their chromeotypes,magazine covers, illustrations, ads, slick and pulp fiction, comics,tin pan alley music, tap dancing, hollywood movies, etc Buy Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay at a discount
It is lucky,however, for repin that the peasant is protected from the productsof american capitalism, for he would not stand a chance next toa ultimately, it can be said that the cultivated spectator derivesthe same values from picasso that the peasant gets from repin,since what the latter enjoys in repin is somehow art too, on howeverlow a scale, and he is sent to look at pictures by the same instinctsthat send the cultivated spectator. But todaysuch culture is being abandoned by those to whom it actually belongs-- our ruling class. True, the first settlers of bohemia -- which was then identicalwith the avant-garde -- turned out soon to be demonstrativelyuninterested in politics. In a stable society that functions well enough to hold in solutionthe contradictions between its classes, the cultural dichotomybecomes somewhat blurred Buy Online Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
That mussolini was late in coming to thisonly illustrates again the relative hesitance with which italianfascism has drawn the necessary implications of its role. There was availablefor imitation a universally valid conceptual reality, whose orderthe artist could not tamper with. Hence it developed that thetrue and most important function of the avant-garde was not toexperiment, but to find a path along which it wouldbe possible to keep culture moving in the midst of ideologicalconfusion and violence. Kitsch keeps a dictator in closer contactwith the soul of the people. Kitsch is a product of the industrial revolution which urbanizedthe masses of western europe and america and established whatis called universal literacy Buy Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay Online at a discount
Itis true that this culture contains within itself some of the veryalexandrianism it seeks to overcome. Ambitious writers and artists will modify their workunder the pressure of kitsch, if they do not succumb to it entirely. The essay has an air and assurance of 30s marxism, with peculiar assumptions such as that only under socialism could the taste of the masses be raised. Formal culturehas always belonged to the first, while the last have had to contentthemselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch. Contentis to be dissolved so completely into form that the work of artor literature cannot be reduced in whole or in part to anythingnot itself.
Moreover,as macdonald himself points out, around 1925 when the soviet regimewas encouraging avant-garde cinema, the russian masses continuedto prefer hollywood movies Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay For Sale
Later the nazis realized thatit was more practical to accede to the wishes of the masses inmatters of culture than to those of their paymasters the latter,when it came to a question of preserving power, were as willingto sacrifice their culture as they were their moral principleswhile the former, precisely because power was being withheld fromthem, had to be cozened in every other way possible. Courage indeed was neededfor this, because the avant-gardes emigration from bourgeoissociety to bohemia meant also an emigration from the markets ofcapitalism, upon which artists and writers had been thrown bythe falling away of aristocratic patronage. But for all that, the essay stakes out new territory For Sale Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
But even during the renaissance, and as long as western artwas endeavoring to perfect its technique, victories in this realmcould only be signalized by success in realistic imitation, sincethere was no other objective criterion at hand. Returning to our russian peasant for the moment, let us supposethat after he has chosen repin in preference to picasso, the stateseducational apparatus comes along and tells him that he is wrong,that he should have chosen picasso -- and shows him why. The neatness of this antithesisis more than contrived it corresponds to and defines the tremendousinterval that separates from each other two such simultaneouscultural phenomena as the avant-garde and kitsch. And so we find mussolini announcing a new imperialstyle Sale Roman Vs. Greek Art Essay
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